Located in the neck just below the larynx, the thyroid gland regulates your body's energy levels and releases hormones that regulate your metabolism. Thyroid hormones influence virtually every organ system in the body, telling organs how fast or slow they should work. Thyroid surgery is performed for several reasons and can include symptomatic thyroid nodules, recurrent thyroid cysts, goiter, Graves’ disease, and to rule out or treat thyroid cancer. To diagnose thyroid conditions, ultrasound surveillance and ultrasound-guided biopsies would need to be performed.
The parathyroid glands are four small glands in the neck that are part of the endocrine system. They produce parathyroid hormone (PTH), which maintains calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood. The primary disease associated with the parathyroid is overproduction of PTH, known as hyperparathyroidism. Although not a cancerous condition, hyperparathyroidism is often caused by a tumor on the parathyroid gland, known as an adenoma, which enlarges the affected gland and causes it to continuously secrete PTH. In this case, the parathyroid tumor and/or gland would need to be removed surgically.
Pituitary Gland Surgery
The pituitary gland, located within the skull, connects to the hypothalamus and links brain activity with hormone production to help maintain the function of organs throughout the body. Pituitary gland surgery may be performed if a cancerous or noncancerous tumor needs to be removed.