Sinus tumors may develop in any of the four sinus cavities as a result of abnormal cell growth in the area. While the specific cause is unknown, tumors tend to develop in patients with chronic sinusitis or those who have been exposed to certain substances. Most of these tumors are benign, but may cause symptoms such as nasal obstruction, facial pain, blurred vision, and bleeding. Some examples of benign sinonasal tumors or lesions include inverted papilloma, osteoma, juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma, and mucocele.
Cancerous tumors that develop in the sinus cavities are usually squamous cell carcinomas. Squamous cell cancer of the sinuses rarely spreads to other regions of the body, but must be appropriately evaluated and treated thoroughly. Other examples of sinonasal cancers include lymphoma, esthesioneuroblastoma, melanoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma.
Treatment for sinus tumors depends on the type, size and severity of the lesion, but often involves surgical resection of the tumor, which can be performed using endoscopic or open surgical techniques. Surgery may be combined with chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancerous tumors. Small, benign tumors may not require any treatment other than observation to detect growth or any other abnormalities, as long as the tumor does not interfere with the patient’s everyday life.